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Copenhagen Consensus Center

How can we best reduce suffering from global warming?

Experts in climate economics examine the best ways to reduce suffering from global warming.

    Copenhagen Consensus on Climate

    Global warming is real; it is caused by man-made CO2 emissions, and we need to do something about it. But we don't need action that makes us feel good. We need action that actually does good.

    But which response to global warming will be best for the planet? Should we focus on adapting to living in a warmer world? Should we immediately regulate greenhouse gas emissions to minimize the causes of global warming? Should we place our faith in technological solutions like a large-scale manipulation of the planet’s atmosphere? Different solutions to climate change will achieve different things, and cost varying amounts.

    Human-caused global warming is a problem that we must confront.

    The world has turned to scientists to tell us about the problem of global warming. Now, we need to ensure that we have a solid scientific foundation when we choose our policy response. That is why the Copenhagen Consensus Center commissioned research papers from specialist climate economists, outlining the cost and benefits of each way to respond to global warming. 

    In September 2009, the Copenhagen Consensus Center assembled an Expert Panel of five world-class economists to consider the research presented here. The Expert Panel met to deliberate and form conclusions about which solution to climate change is the most promising.

    This site presents the final result from the meeting, the research papers, as well as personal stories from around the world on real people affected by global warming.


    The Copenhagen Consensus Center assembled an Expert Panel to consider the research presented here. The Expert Panel of five world-class economists – including three recipients of the Nobel Prize – met in September to deliberate and form conclusions about which solution to climate change is the most promising.

    They created a prioritized list, outlining the most - and least - effective responses to global warming.

    Smart Solutions to Climate Change

    Copenhagen Consensus on Climate culminated with the publication of Smart Solutions to Climate Change, edited by Bjørn Lomborg. This book, published by Cambridge  University Press, provides not only a reservoir of information on the reality of human induced climate change, but raises vital questions and examines viable options on what can be done to meet the challenge.  

    For each policy, authors outline all of the costs, benefits and likely outcomes, in fully referenced, clearly presented chapters accompanied by shorter, critical alternative perspectives. To further stimulate debate, a panel of economists, including three Nobel laureates, evaluate and rank the attractiveness of the policies. This authoritative and thought-provoking book will challenge readers to form their own conclusions about the best ways to respond to global warming.