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Gender

Investing in women’s issues can yield strong value-for-money, often outperforming other sectors in both immediate and long-term impacts. The diversity of programming in this arena means that we can now afford to think more critically around the quality of empowerment that programs are able to cultivate within their participants and more broadly, within entire communities.

The reports below point to critical efforts being made within the gender paradigm, showcasing how eliminating gender-based violence and child marriage, as well as enhancing family planning and maternal health, present the strongest cost-benefit ratios in terms of closing the gender gap, and improving the economic outcomes of less developed communities as a whole.

Publications

Ghana Priorities: Gender

Child marriage forces girls to assume adult responsibilities even though they are not physically, emotionally, psychologically and mentally ready for such responsibility. The result has been harmful to these girls, their children, families and the community, making it a priority to eliminate it globally.

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Ghana Priorities: Maternal and Child Health

Over the last three decades, Ghana has invested large amounts of effort in implementing various strategies to reduce maternal and child mortality in the country.

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Ghana Priorities: Nutrition

Ghana is considered one of the few success stories on the African continent regarding child nutrition. The rates of child growth faltering (indicated as stunting, wasting, and underweight) has declined steadily at the national level.

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Andhra Pradesh Priorities: Maternal & Child Health, Shariff

India figures amongst the highest prevalence of neonatal mortality in the world, with about 0.75 million neonates dying every year. Additionally, more than 659,000 new-born babies die every year in India. India also accounts for twenty percent of all maternal deaths worldwide, with more than 150 women dying each day due to preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.

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Andhra Pradesh Priorities: Crime & Violence, Raghavendran

This paper examines two successful interventions to address IPV in South Africa and Uganda and assesses potential benefit to cost if these interventions were implemented in Andhra Pradesh.

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Andhra Pradesh Priorities: Child Marriage, Mithal

Child marriage is defined by India’s Child Marriage Prohibition Act 2006 as the marriage of girls under 18 years of age, and marriage of boys below 21 years of age. Although efforts to reduce child marriage in India have sharply accelerated over the past two decades, raising the median age of marriage of both girls and boys to over 18, the country still accounts for close to 40% of the world’s child marriages with one-in-five girls married before the age of 15.

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Andhra Pradesh Priorities: Early Childhood Development, Shariff

This study aims to address the issues of quality of education and enrolment ratios in preschool education offered by AWCs in Andhra Pradesh (AP). Cost-benefit analysis of two interventions: i) a conditional cash incentive to induce uptake of PSE services for 4 year olds at AWCs and, ii) improving quality of pre-school education at AWCs by hiring external teaching inputs from localized organizations specializing in early childhood development has been undertaken in this study.

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Rajasthan Priorities: Crime & Violence, Raghavendran

This paper examines two successful interventions to address IPV in South Africa and Uganda and assesses potential benefit to cost if these interventions were implemented in Rajasthan.

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Rajasthan Priorities: Adolescents, IIHMR

This study has looked into three critical problems that affect adolescents in the context of Rajasthan. These problems are: prevalence of girl child marriage, prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls, and mental health problems among the adolescent population in schools.

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Rajasthan Priorities: Child Marriage, Mithal

Child marriage is defined by India’s Child Marriage Prohibition Act 2006 as the marriage of girls under 18 years of age, and marriage of boys below 21 years of age. Although efforts to reduce child marriage in India have sharply accelerated over the past two decades, raising the median age of marriage of both girls and boys to over 18, the country still accounts for close to 40% of the world’s child marriages with one-in-five girls married before the age of 15.

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Rajasthan Priorities: Maternal & Child Health, Shariff

India figures amongst the highest prevalence of neonatal mortality in the world, with about 0.75 million neonates dying every year. More than 659,000 newborn babies die every year in India – amongst the highest number of newborn deaths in the world. India also accounts for twenty percent of all maternal deaths worldwide, with more than 150 women dying in India each day due to preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.

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Rajasthan Priorities: Early Childhood Development, Shariff

This study aims to address the issue of quality of education and enrolment ratios in preschool education offered by Anganwadi Centers (AWCs) in Rajasthan. Cost-benefit analysis of two interventions: i) a conditional cash incentive to induce uptake of PSE services for 4 year olds at AWCs and, ii) improving quality of pre-school education at AWCs by hiring external teaching inputs from localized organizations specializing in early childhood development.

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Haïti Priorise: Violence conjugale, Hoeffler

Le problème En Haïti, des résultats d’enquêtes confidentielles suggèrent que la violence conjugale est un problème grave : environ 273 200 femmes souffrent de violences physiques et/ou sexuelles...

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Haïti Priorise: Égalité face à l’emploi, Torchenaud

Le Problème En Haïti, les distorsions sociales et les inégalités qui régissent le marché du travail empêchent les femmes de se développer à pleine capacité. Selon une étude menée par le Ministère des...

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Haïti Priorise: Domestic Violence, Hoeffler

The Problem In Haiti, evidence from confidential surveys suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious problem: about 273,200 women suffer from severe physical and/or sexual violence per...

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Haïti Priorise: Workforce Equality, Torchenaud

The Problem In Haiti, social distortions and inequalities that rule the labor market prevent women from developing to full capacity. According to a study carried out by the Ministry of Women's...

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Haïti Priorise : Planification Familiale, Kohler

Description du problème Au cours des années 1970 et 1980, un programme de planification familiale efficace avec un solide appui des secteurs privé et public a contribué à faire baisser le taux de...

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Haïti Priorise: Family Planning, Kohler

Description of the Problem During the 1970s and 1980s, a successful family planning program with strong private and public sector support helped contribute to a decline in Haiti’s fertility rate...

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Haïti Priorise: L’éducation des filles, Torchenaud

Description du problème Dans tout le pays, la fréquentation scolaire est plus élevée pour les garçons que pour les filles. L’écart est plus grand dans les zones rurales que dans les zones urbaines...

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Haïti Priorise: Girl's Education, Torchenaud

Description of Problem Across the country, school attendance is higher for boys than for girls. The gap is larger for rural areas than for urban areas. The gross enrollment ratio for pupils from the...

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Bangladesh Nutrition: Girls Education

Research by Ahsanuzzaman evaluates the costs and benefits of girl’s secondary schooling as a means to mitigate child malnutrition. The analysis indicates that children whose mothers have completed...

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Bangladesh Nutrition: Girls Secondary Schooling

Research by Atonu Rabbani looks at how providing stipends to girls could help encourage them to stay in school and receive a secondary education. Rabbani’s analysis shows a strong correlation in...

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Bangladesh Nutrition: Pregnancy Supplements

Research by Jonathan Rose and Enamul Hoque focuses on three key nutrition direct interventions during pregnancy – calcium supplementation, balanced energy protein supplementation and iron-folate...

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Bangladesh Nutrition: Complementary Feeding Promotion

Research by Mahmud Khan and Rubina Shaheen offer an analysis on the costs and benefits of promoting nutritious foods that can be eaten alongside rice. The promotion of supplementary and complementary...

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Bangladesh Nutrition: Nutrition Direct Package

Research by Jonathan Rose suggests that direct nutritional interventions aimed at mothers, babies and small children in the first 1,000 days would yield improvements in physical and cognitive...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Girls Education, Zaman

Early marriage is far from the only challenge Bangladeshi girls and women face. New research by Ahsan Zaman, an assistant economics professor at North South University, examines two other pressing...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Pregnancy Supplements, Rose

Jonathan Rose, a research advisor with the South Asian Institute of Advanced Legal and Human Rights Studies, looks at how nutrition could also help pregnant women. Providing nutrients to the mother...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Child and Maternal Health, Khan and Ahmed

Even though Bangladesh has greatly reduced child and maternal deaths, the progress has been uneven. According to the World Bank, the mortality rates are nearly twice as high for infants and young...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Child Marriage, Field et al.

Research by economists from Duke University and MIT’s Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab examines various strategies to prevent child marriages. It finds that providing financial incentives to...

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Bangladesh Priorities: Sexual and Reproductive Health, Zaman

Early marriage is far from the only challenge Bangladeshi girls and women face. New research by Ahsan Zaman, an assistant economics professor at North South University, examines two other pressing...

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South Africa Perspective: Population

Background In the wealthy countries of Europe, Asia and the Americas populations are aging rapidly, while birth rates in some Asian countries and much of sub-Saharan Africa remain high and they have...

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Indonesia Perspectives: Population and Demography

Seminar Speakers: Hans-Peter Kohler, Professor of Demography in the Department of Sociology and a Research Associate in the Population Studies Center at the University of Pennsylvania Dwini Arianto,...

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Health Perspective, Fink

Eliminating all infant and child deaths is the ultimate long-term goal, but we need to look at more achievable targets for the relatively short period 2015-2030. The UN High Level Panel has suggested that this should be to aim for “… an upper threshold of 20 deaths per 1000 live births in all income quintiles of the population”. We argue that this target is not nearly ambitious enough for some middle income countries and rather unreasonable for some of the poorest country; instead of aiming for a uniform target, we argue that all countries should target a reduction of 70% in neonatal mortality between 2015 and 2030.

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Health Perspective, Luca et al.

There is robust evidence that improved population health helps boost incomes. We argue that female-specific health interventions are a sound investment and, in particular, that vaccinating against human papilloma virus (HPV) in developing countries would reduce the substantial burden of cervical cancer. Further, we propose that diminishing the lifetime risk of cervical cancer and HPV-related disease by 40% (representing nearly 3 million deaths) through increased HPV vaccination coverage in developing countries is a worthy goal for inclusion in the post-2015 global development agenda.

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Viewpoint Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Health Viewpoint - Infant Mortality, Gerland and You

Gerland and You comment specifically on the perspective paper from Fink. In their view, with millions of children still at risk of dying of preventable causes, maternal, newborn and child survival...

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Viewpoint Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Health Viewpoint Women Health, Starrs

Starrs emphasises the importance of reproductive health, analysed in the 2014 Guttmacher Institute report – Adding It Up: The costs and benefits of investing in sexual and reproductive health. A key...

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Assessment Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Gender Equality Assessment, Clots-Figueras

Women in the developing world have the highest incidence of poverty, poor health, lack of education, unequal rights and violence. Some of the Millennium Development Goals were either directly targeted at women, or were targeted at reducing gender differences. However, although remarkable progress has been made, there is still a long way to go.

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Gender Equality Perspective, Braunstein

In this paper I identify and discuss the assessment paper’s methodological problems and evidentiary gaps with the intent of improving its evaluative power. Methodologically, I use a gender-aware analysis to identify the challenges of conducting benefit cost analysis based on micro experimental evidence. I then argue the case for including macroeconomic perspetives and evidence, drawing from the research on gender equality and growth.

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Gender Equality Perspective, Jacobsen

Clots-Figueras addresses all of the relevant Post-2015 goals and reports on the most recent relevant experimental results having to do with explicit benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) for this gender-related research. However, the evidence base is restricted to experimental papers. This perspective paper suggests different views regarding how to measure and assess evidence regarding BCRs. This includes addressing the question of what elements are preconditions and what events are actually more likely to occur if economic situations for women are improved.

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Viewpoint Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Gender Equality Viewpoint, Almas

Jiwani is very supportive of the Copenhagen Consensus efforts, and also supports the three pre-conditions identified in the paper as enablers of women’s economic empowerment. Such empowerment is not...

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Viewpoint Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Gender Equality Viewpoint, Nordlund

Nordlund considers that the MDG indicators have not been set effectively, targeting mainly the effects rather than causes of inequalities. The SDGs should be better, and the cost-benefit analysis of...

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Viewpoint Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Gender Equality Viewpoint, ACDI/VOCA

Jones commends Clots-Figueraz for her evidence-based approach, providing realistic, yet ambitious, analysis of the post-2015 development agenda for gender equality. However, there are some important...

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Assessment Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Population and Demography Assessment, Kohler Behrman

Prioritizing the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda on Population and Demography requires recognition that national demographic trajectories are currently more diverse than in the middle and late 20th century. Wealthy countries of Europe, Asia and the Americas face rapid population aging, while Africa and some countries in Asia prepare for the largest cohort of young people the world has ever seen.

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Population and Demography Perspective, Canning

The challenge paper covers a wide range of issues and there is a lack of detail in some of the arguments. We have to think of priorities across as well as within issues, and this paper puts forward five thematic priorities.

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Population and Demography Perspective, Galor Casey

In all facets of life, people must make decisions about how to allocate scarce resources. Potential parents must decide how many children to have and how much to invest in the future of each child. This decision is known as the ‘quantity-quality’ tradeoff.

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Viewpoint Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Population and Demography Viewpoint, Herrmann

Herrmann notes the two overarching messages emerging from the global consultation on this issue: that demography matters for sustainable development and that demography is not destiny; it can be...

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Assessment Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Conflict and Violence Assessment, Hoeffler Fearon

There is an ongoing debate on what brought about the reduction in violence over the past three decades in high income countries but the phenomenon cannot be reduced to the application of a few...

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Conflict and Violence Perspective, Soares

Because of the difficulties involved, I sympathise with Fearon and Hoeffler’s general approach of trying to highlight certain relevant costs rather than coming up with specific cost-benefit ratios. However, I think the discussion would benefit from a slightly different perspective, taking a further step back to define specific issues of paramount importance together with promising interventions, since any attempt to paint a broad picture inevitably becomes somewhat fragmented and superficial. Considering which issues could deliver potentially the highest benefits and be tackled by fairly standardised interventions, I believe the focus should be on common crime and violence.

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Perspective Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Conflict and Violence Perspective, Blomberg

My purpose in this perspective paper is to estimate benefit-cost ratios for the various targets proposed by Fearon and Hoeffler. I estimate most of the targets to be in the FAIR to GOOD range. The authors have done a remarkable job in cataloguing various forms of violence, their costs and benefits of existing programs. However, one notable weakness is the inability to provide systematic BCRs.

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Viewpoint Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Conflict and Violence Viewpoint, Ransford

Ransford (Cure Violence) concurs with the authors that violence reduction is crucial to economic and social development and in particular that the magnitude and costs associated with interpersonal...

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Viewpoint Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Conflict and Violence Viewpoint, Aucoin Russell

Aucoin (former Conflict Prevention and Peace Forum) and Russell (Stability: International Journal of Security and Development) look at how the case for intervention against societal violence could be...

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Viewpoint Paper

Post-2015 Consensus: Conflict and Violence Viewpoint, Ruane

Ruane (Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom) welcomes the author's focus on the need for a violence prevention approach to development that addresses violence from the personal to the...

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Policy Advice

Preliminary Benefit-Cost Assessment for 12th Session OWG Goals

The Copenhagen Consensus has updated our benefit-cost assessment of UN Post-2015 Millennium Development Goals for the 12th session of the Open Working Group. The Copenhagen Consensus will present...

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Policy Advice

Preliminary Benefit-Cost Assessment for 11th Session OWG Goals

Some of the world’s top economists have assessed the targets from the 11th session Open Working Group document into one of five categories, based on economic evidence: Phenomenal, Good, Fair, Poor and Uncertain.

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Assessment Paper

A Scorecard for Humanity: Gender Inequality, Jacobsen

In 2012, women's lower salaries and exclusion from work cost the global economy a staggering 15.5% of GDP -- the difference between boom and bust. But how did we get that figure?

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Assessment Paper

Second Copenhagen Consensus: Women and Development Assessment, King

An Assessment Paper on Women and Development was prepared for the second Copenhagen Consensus by Elizabeth M. King. The working paper used by the Expert Panel is available for download here, the...

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Perspective Paper

Second Copenhagen Consensus: Women and Development Perspective, Haddad

An Assessment Paper on Women and Development was prepared for the second Copenhagen Consensus by Elizabeth M. King. Lawrence Haddad and Aysit Tansel wrote Perspective Papers in response.

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Perspective Paper

Second Copenhagen Consenus: Women and Development Perspective, Tansel

An Assessment Paper on Women and Development was prepared for the second Copenhagen Consensus by Elizabeth M. King. Lawrence Haddad and Aysit Tansel wrote Perspective Papers in response.

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Assessment Paper

Copenhagen Consensus Latin America: Poverty and Inequality

By Sebastian Galiani. With about one in five people in Latin America and the Caribbean classified as poor by international definitions, poverty remains at the top of the regional policy agenda. Economic growth is one way to reduce absolute poverty, and indeed seems a prerequisite for any significant improvement.

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Assessment Paper

Bill Gates for a Day: Living Conditions of Women

Women when compared to men have benefited less during the course of economic development resulting in a lowered status of well-being for women within the house, in the workplace and the community. It is well established by now that the unequal status between men and women is not due to their biological or physiological differences but a social one connoted as gender inequality.

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Presentation

Bill Gates for a Day: Living Conditions of Women presentation

Brinda Viswanathan presented her finding on the topic of living conditions of women at the Bill Gates for a Day conference in March 2007.

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